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What is RATE OF RETURN REGULATION? What does RATE OF RETURN REGULATION mean?
 
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What is RATE OF RETURN REGULATION? What does RATE OF RETURN REGULATION mean? RATE OF RETURN REGULATION meaning - RATE OF RETURN REGULATION definition - RATE OF RETURN REGULATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Rate-of-return regulation is a system for setting the prices charged by government-regulated monopolies. The main premise is that monopolies will be compelled to charge the same price that would ideally prevail in a perfectly competitive market, which is equal to the efficient costs of production plus a market-determined rate of return on capital. Rate-of-return regulation has been criticized because it encourages cost-padding, and because, if the rate is set too high, it encourages regulated firms to adopt inefficiently high capital-labor ratios. This is known as the Averch–Johnson effect, or simply "Gold-plating." Due to the nature of rate-of-return regulation there is no incentive for regulated monopolies to minimize their capital purchases since prices are set equal to their costs of production. Rate-of-return regulation was dominant in the United States for a number of years in the government regulation of utility companies and other natural monopolies. Were these firms to remain unregulated, they could easily charge far higher rates, given that consumers would pay any price for goods such as electricity or water. Rate-of-return regulation was used most regularly to determine reasonable prices for goods supplied by utility companies. This regulation is considered fair due to the fact that they give the company the opportunity to recover costs incurred by providing consumers with their goods or services while simultaneously protecting consumers from paying exorbitant prices that would provide these companies with monopolistic profits. Under this method of regulation, government regulators examine the firm's rate base, cost of capital, operating expenses, and overall depreciation in order to estimate the total revenue needed for the firm to fully cover its expenses. The goal of rate-of-return regulation is for the regulator to evaluate the effects of different price levels on potential earnings for a firm in order for consumers to be protected while ensuring investors receive a "fair" rate of return on their investment. There are five criteria utilized by regulators to assess the suitable rate of return for a firm. 1. The first criterion is whether the rate of return is at a level substantial enough to attract capital from investors. Government regulation of this fashion is meant to ensure that firms don't abuse their monopoly powers to take advantage of consumers; however, they must also ensure that regulation does not prevent customers from acquiring their essential goods and services. If the rate of return is too low, investors will not be compelled to invest in the firm, preventing it from having the financial capital to operate and invest in physical capital and labor, which in turn would result in consumers being unable to receive their sufficient level of service, such as electricity for their homes. 2. The second criterion that regulators must consider is the efficient consumer-rationing of services provided by regulated firms. To promote consumer efficiency, prices should reflect marginal costs; however, this must also be balanced with the first criterion. 3. Thirdly, regulators must ensure that the regulated monopolistic firm utilizes efficient management practices. Here a regulator can examine whether or not the firm's leadership is taking advantage of loopholes in regulation by overstating costs in order to be permitted to operate at a higher price level. 4. A fourth criterion a regulator must investigate is the firm's long-term stability. As above mentioned, one of government's chief concerns is to ensure consumers are able to receive their required level of service. Therefore, regulators must take into account the future prospects of the firm, similarly to the way in which a stock-trader would evaluate a company's future potential. 5. The fifth and final criterion the regulator must take into account is fairness to the investors. This is a separate concern from the first criterion since the regulator must both ensure that the company receives the capital it needs to continue operating and that private investors are receiving fair profits on their investment, otherwise such regulation would likely correspond to a decrease in investment....
Views: 911 The Audiopedia
Rate of return regulation and performance based regulation (BSE)
 
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Subject :Business Economics Paper : Economics of services
Views: 248 Vidya-mitra
Micro 4.5 Socially Optimal and Fair Return for Monopolies
 
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Mr. Clifford's 60 second explanation of regulating monopolies. The government can regulate at socially optimal quantity (D = MC) to get them to produce the allocatively efficient output or they can get them to produce at fair return (D=ATC) where they make no economic profit. Please keep in mind that these clips are not designed to teach you the key concepts. These videos are a review tool to help you better understand what you learned in class. ACDC is Mr. Clifford's teaching philosophy: Active Learning Cooperative Learning Discovery Learning Community
Views: 175937 Jacob Clifford
Costs and Rate of Return Regulation
 
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Overview of costs and rate of return regulation.
Views: 902 Trevor Roycroft
Natural Monopoly and the need for Government Regulation
 
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Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 75971 Jason Welker
Adv and Disadv of Rate of Return Regulation
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 26 Max Theostotle
Episode 28: Regulation
 
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How does the government regulate a natural monopoly? "Episode 28: Regulation" by Dr. Mary J. McGlasson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Views: 108114 mjmfoodie
What is PRICE-CAP REGULATION? What does PRICE-CAP REGULATION mean? PRICE-CAP REGULATION meaning
 
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What is PRICE-CAP REGULATION? What does PRICE-CAP REGULATION mean? PRICE-CAP REGULATION meaning - PRICE-CAP REGULATION definition - PRICE-CAP REGULATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Price-cap regulation is a form of regulation designed in the 1980s by UK Treasury economist Stephen Littlechild, which has been applied to all of the privatized British network utilities. It is contrasted with rate-of-return regulation, in which utilities are permitted a set rate of return on capital, and with revenue-cap regulation where total revenue is the regulated variable. Price cap regulation adjusts the operator’s prices according to the price cap index that reflects the overall rate of inflation in the economy, the ability of the operator to gain efficiencies relative to the average firm in the economy, and the inflation in the operator’s input prices relative to the average firm in the economy. Revenue cap regulation attempts to do the same thing, but for revenue rather than prices. Price cap regulation is sometimes called "CPI - X", (in the United Kingdom "RPI-X") after the basic formula employed to set price caps. This takes the rate of inflation, measured by the Consumer Price Index (UK Retail Prices Index, RPI) and subtracts expected efficiency savings X. In the water industry, the formula is "RPI - X + K", where K is based on capital investment requirements. The system is intended to provide incentives for efficiency savings, as any savings above the predicted rate X can be passed on to shareholders, at least until the price caps are next reviewed (usually every five years). A key part of the system is that the rate X is based not only a firm's past performance, but on the performance of other firms in the industry: X is intended to be a proxy for a competitive market, in industries which are natural monopolies. Now consider how a utility operator might be different from the average firm in the economy. First, assume that the operator is just like the average firm, except that the operator’s input prices change at a rate that is different from the rate of change for the average firm. If the operator’s input prices increase faster than (conversely, slower than) the rate of inflation, then the operator’s retail prices (revenue) will need to increase faster than (conversely, slower than) the rate of inflation for the operator to be able to have earnings that are at least as great as the operator’s cost of capital. Now assume that the operator is just like the average firm, except with respect to the operator’s ability to improve efficiency. If the operator increases its productivity faster than (conversely, slower than) the average firm, then the operator’s retail prices (revenue) will need to decrease (conversely, increase) relative to the rate of inflation. Combining these two possible differences between the operator and the average firm in the economy, the operator’s retail prices (revenue) should change at the rate of inflation, minus (conversely, plus) the extent to which its input prices inflate less than (conversely, greater than) the rate of inflation, and minus (conversely, plus) the extent to which the operator’s productivity is expected to improve at a rate that is greater than (conversely, less than) the average firm in the economy. The above analysis identifies two things. First, the inflation rate, I, used in the price cap index represents the general rate of inflation for the economy. Second, the X-factor is intended to capture the difference between the operator and the average firm in the economy with respect to inflation in input prices and changes in productivity. That is to say, the choice of inflation index and of the X-factor go hand in hand. Some regulators choose a general measure of inflation, such as a gross national product price index. In this case, the X-factor reflects the difference between the operator and the average firm in the economy with respect to the operator’s ability to improve its productivity and the effect of inflation on the operator’s input costs. Other regulators choose a retail (or producer) price index. In these cases, the X-factor represents the difference between the operator and the average retail (or wholesale) firm. Lastly, some regulators construct price indices of operator inputs. In these cases, the.....
Views: 1217 The Audiopedia
Price Regulation
 
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Views: 643 Guy Pascale
What is PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE? What does PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE mean?
 
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What is PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE? What does PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE mean? PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE meaning - PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE definition - PRUDENT INVESTMENT RULE explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - http://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ?sub_confirmation=1 Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In the utilities industry, the Prudent Investment Rule refers to a series of state standards which determine the fiscal soundness of a utility in the course of rate recovery for recoverable capital costs to be determined by that state’s Public Service Commission (PSC). The determination is established through a series of filings from the utility to the PSC and hearings conducted by the PSC. This occurs during a prudency hearing. The PSC follows these standards to determine if the capital costs were a "prudent investment". To determine the prudency of the investment, the PSC applies the prudent investment test or standard, determining if the costs were reasonable at the time they were incurred, and given the circumstances and what was known or knowable at the time, are to be included in the firm's rates. It is commonly used as an oversight tool by the government to ensure that money invested into a project is being spent as it was intended so the utility may recoup some costs in construction through a recovery in rates, hence the title prudent investment rule. Regulators can consider cases of hidden imprudence, but are required to consider what was known or knowable at the time the decision was made by the PSC. The term Prudent Investment Rule, and the associated standards, have been established through a series of legal precedents. The first case to set precedent was the United States Supreme Court case of Munn v. Illinois in 1877, which allowed states to have a say in rates. Once the nature of recoverable capital costs was defined, a second question remained as to the rate at which that capital could be recovered. This issue was reasonably addressed in 1935 in Bluefield Water Works & Improvement Co. v. Public Service Commission of West Virginia, when the court said that a public utility is entitled to such rates as will permit it to earn a return equal to that generally being made at the same time and in the same general part of the country on investments in other business undertakings which are attended by corresponding risks and uncertainties. Rate-of-return Regulation is a system for setting the prices charged by government-regulated monopolies, such as utility companies. There are several advantages to using rate-of-return regulation. The first is that it is sustainable if there is no competition because prices can be adjusted to the company’s changing conditions. It can also provide comfort to investors because rate-of-return regulation constrains the regulator’s discretion in setting prices. This lowers investor risk, which lowers the cost of capital. Company profits can be kept within acceptable levels from the perspectives of both investors and customers. Unless the regulator chronically underestimates the cost of capital (and courts do not reverse the regulator in this regard), investors can be confident they have a fair opportunity to receive the profits they expect and thus are willing to make investments. Customers can observe that the regulator is limiting company profits to the cost of capital.....
Views: 26 The Audiopedia
Electricity Distribution Regulation in the UK (RPI-X), Michael Pollitt - Part 1
 
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Shaping the power grid business - a joint initiative of Florence School of Regulation and Vlerick Business School Part 1 - Electricity Distribution Regulation in the UK (RPI-X). Video lecture by Michael Pollitt (Assistant Director of the Energy Policy Research group, University of Cambridge) for the FUTURE POWER GRID MANAGERS PROGRAMME. In the first part of his video lecture series Michael Pollitt examines the business models for network companies, focusing on the electricity distribution regulation in the UK and describing the RPI-X incentive regulation system introduced in the UK in 1990. Find more online teaching material of the FUTURE POWER GRID MANAGERS PROGRAMME here http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLObuk3UYC3P19dhToHCheYJO_mfhOaXKQ Find more information on this executive training programme for power grid managers here: http://www.vlerick.com/powergrid Find more information on Florence School of Regulation www.florence-school.eu ***To properly view this lecture please make sure to modify the quality on the lower right corner to at least 720p*** http://fsr.eui.eu
Cardiac Output, Stroke volume, EDV, ESV, Ejection Fraction
 
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Cardiac Physiology Basics. This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/cardiology-and-vascular-diseases ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by: Sue Stern. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia CARDIAC OUTPUT is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute. It is the product of STROKE VOLUME – the amount of blood pumped in one heartbeat, and HEART RATE – the number of beats in one minute. An INcrease in either stroke volume or heart rate results in INcreased cardiac output, and vice versa. For example, during physical exercises, the heart beats faster to put out more blood in response to higher demand of the body. It is noteworthy that the ventricles do NOT eject ALL the blood they contain in one beat. In a typical example, a ventricle is filled with about 100ml of blood at the end of its load, but only 60ml is ejected during contraction. This corresponds to an EJECTION fraction of 60%. The 100ml is the end-DIASTOLIC volume, or EDV. The 40ml that remains in the ventricle after contraction is the end-SYSTOLIC volume, or ESV. The stroke volume equals EDV minus ESV, and is dependent on 3 factors: contractility, preload, and afterload. Contractility refers to the force of the contraction of the heart muscle. The more forceful the contraction, the more blood it ejects. PRELOAD is RELATED to the end-diastolic volume. Preload, by definition, is the degree of STRETCH of cardiac myocytes at the end of ventricular filling, but since this parameter is not readily measurable in patients, EDV is used instead. This is because the stretch level of the wall of a ventricle INcreases as it’s filled with more and more blood; just like a balloon - the more air it contains, the more stretched it is. According to the Frank-Starling mechanism, the greater the stretch, the greater the force of contraction. In the balloon analogy, the more inflated the balloon, the more forceful it releases air when deflated. AFTERLOAD, on the other hand, is the RESISTANCE that the ventricle must overcome to eject blood. Afterload includes 2 major components: - Vascular pressure: The pressure in the left ventricle must be GREATER than the systemic pressure for the aortic valve to open. Similarly, the pressure in the right ventricle must exceed pulmonary pressure to open the pulmonary valve. In hypertension for example, higher vascular pressures make it more difficult for the valves to open, resulting in a REDUCED amount of ejected blood. - Damage to the valves, such as stenosis, also presents higher resistance and leads to lower blood output. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Views: 195497 Alila Medical Media
Regulating Monopolies: A History of Electricity Regulation - Learn Liberty
 
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Prof. Lynne Kiesling discusses the history of regulating electricity monopolies in America. Conventionally, most people view regulation of monopoly, such as the Sherman Antitrust Act, as one of government's core responsibilities. Kiesling challenges this notion, and finds that government regulation of monopoly actually stifles innovation and hurts consumers. The American electricity industry was booming in the 1890s, with several small firms competing against one another. Over time, Kiesling argues that the fixed costs began to escalate, increasing the cost of entry into the industry. Put another way, large competitors gained a significant competitive edge over smaller competitors through economies of scale. Eventually, in places like New York and Chicago, Kiesling claims that the competitive process led to one large firm. These monopolies were feared by the public, and led to demands for government regulation. The electricity industry, knowing that regulation was coming, used these demands for regulation as cover to construct legal barriers to entry. Ultimately, the regulations passed by the government reduced competition by granting legal monopoly privileges to powerful firms within a certain geographical territory. In modern times, we are seeing the real cost of these old one-size-fits-all regulations: 1) People aren't adjusting their energy consumption behaviors. For instance, in peak hours, technological solutions that could smooth electricity consumption are being ignored. 2) The electricity industry doesn't evolve and account for new types of renewable energy. 3) Innovations have been discouraged. If these archaic regulations were removed, innovations and improvements beneficial to consumers would flourish. For more information, check us out here: http://lrnlbty.co/zcPIQr Watch more videos: http://lrnlbty.co/y5tTcY
Views: 48688 Learn Liberty
What is INCENTIVE? What does INCENTIVE mean? INCENTIVE meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is INCENTIVE? What does INCENTIVE mean? INCENTIVE meaning - INCENTIVE pronunciation - INCENTIVE definition - INCENTIVE explanation - How to pronounce INCENTIVE? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action. The study of incentive structures is central to the study of all economic activities (both in terms of individual decision-making and in terms of co-operation and competition within a larger institutional structure). Economic analysis, then, of the differences between societies (and between different organizations within a society) largely amounts to characterizing the differences in incentive structures faced by individuals involved in these collective efforts. Ultimately, incentives aim to provide value for money and contribute to organizational success. The study of economics in modern societies is mostly concerned with remunerative incentives rather than moral or coercive incentives – not because the latter two are unimportant, but rather because remunerative incentives are the main form of incentives employed in the world of business, whereas moral and coercive incentives are more characteristic of the sorts of decisions studied by political science and sociology. A classic example of the economic analysis of incentive structures is the famous Walrasian chart of supply and demand curves: economic theory predicts that the market will tend to move towards the equilibrium price because everyone in the market has a remunerative incentive to do so: by lowering a price formerly set above the equilibrium a firm can attract more customers and make more money; by raising a price formerly set below the equilibrium a customer is more able to obtain the good or service that she wants in the quantity she desires. A strong incentive is one that accomplishes the stated goal. If the goal is to maximize production, then a strong incentive will be one that encourages workers to produce goods at full capacity. A weak incentive is any incentive below this level. Incentive-based regulation can be defined as the conscious use of rewards and penalties to encourage good performance in the utility sector. Incentives can be used in several contexts. For example, policymakers in the United States used a quid pro quo incentive when some of the U.S. incumbent local telephone companies were allowed to enter long distance markets only if they first cooperated in opening their local markets to competition. Incentive regulation is often used to regulate the overall price level of utilities. There are four primary approaches to regulating the overall price level: rate of return (or cost of service) regulation, price cap regulation, revenue cap regulation, and benchmarking (or yardstick) regulation. With benchmarking, for example, the operator's performance is compared to other operators' performance and penalties or awards are assessed based on the operator's relative performance. For instance, the regulator might identify a number of comparable operators and compare their cost efficiency. The most efficient operators would be rewarded with extra profits and the least efficient operators would be penalized. Because the operators are actually in different markets, it is important to make sure that the operators' situations are similar so that the comparison is valid, and to use statistical techniques to adjust for any quantifiable differences the operators have no control over. Generally regulators use a combination of these basic forms of regulation. Combining forms of regulation is called hybrid regulation. For example, U.K. regulators (e.g. Ofgem) combine elements of rate of return regulation and price cap regulation to create their form of RPI - X regulation. Incentive Rates are also prevalent in the utility sector, under any of the utility regulatory frameworks noted. Incentive rates are a vehicle for the utility to induce large commercial or industrial customers to locate or maintain a facility in the utility service territory. The incentive is provided in the form of a discount from the utility's standard tariff rates, terms or conditions. In the U.S., incentive rates (also known as Economic Development Rates and/or Load Retention Rates) are a common component of the utility strategy for supporting the economic development efforts of a particular geographic region or political entity.
Views: 6917 The Audiopedia
Regulatory Process 101
 
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This video explains the regulatory process for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Views: 535 nashvillecorps
Why Rate of Return is Not Your #1 Priority
 
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An explanation of the impact of savings verses earning a higher rate of return. More at http://www.becomingyourownbank.com/
Views: 2808 becomingyourownbank
Utility Rate Study
 
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Views: 114 Tempe11Video
AP Micro: Unit 5 Screencast 4 - Regulating Monopolies
 
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Main Topics: Regulating monopolies, the socially optimal price (marginal cost pricing), the fair return price, and the dilemma of regulation. To download a copy of the screencast notes click https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1IwTENCNiDehOaHOVwryVJkIEYf-xUNT6zZJX1wBTeLo/edit?usp=sharing.
Competition Policy - Price Capping
 
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This Year 2 microeconomics revision tutorial looks at the economics of price capping drawing on examples such as the FCA cap on payday loan interest rates and the EU competition commission cap on text calls and roaming charges for people travelling within the EU. For more help with your A Level / IB Economics, visit tutor2u Economics http://www.tutor2u.net/economics If you find this topic video helpful, please SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel For more help with Economics: Follow tutor2u Economics on Twitter: https://twitter.com/tutor2uEcon https://twitter.com/tutor2uGeoff - - - - - - - - - MORE ABOUT TUTOR2U ECONOMICS: Visit tutor2u Economics for thousands of free study notes, videos, quizzes and more: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics A Level Economics Revision Flashcards: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/store/selections/alevel-economics-revision-flashcards A Level Economics Example Top Grade Essays: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/store/selections/exemplar-essays-for-a-level-economics
Views: 7177 tutor2u
Monopoly Part 7 Regulating Monopoly
 
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"Reasonable rate of return", average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing. Public ownership.
Views: 958 Mike Dennis
Imports, Exports, and Exchange Rates: Crash Course Economics #15
 
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What is a trade deficit? Well, it all has to do with imports and exports and, well, trade. This week Jacob and Adriene walk you through the basics of imports, exports, and exchange. So, you remember the specialization and trade thing, right? So, that leads to imports and exports. Economically, in the aggregate, this is usually a good thing. Globalization and free trade do tend to increase overall wealth. But not everybody wins. Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Eric Kitchen, Jessica Wode, Jeffrey Thompson, Steve Marshall, Moritz Schmidt, Robert Kunz, Tim Curwick, Jason A Saslow, SR Foxley, Elliot Beter, Jacob Ash, Christian, Jan Schmid, Jirat, Christy Huddleston, Daniel Baulig, Chris Peters, Anna-Ester Volozh, Ian Dundore, Caleb Weeks -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 936726 CrashCourse
Investment funds and pensions scandal? Fund management risk and opportunity.  Rates of return for investors, investment banking future, regulation and markets.  Retail funds performance.  Conference keynote speaker.
 
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http://www.globalchange.com Many fund managers don't recommend own retail investment funds to family and do not chose to invest own wealth in own funds. Future scandal in fund management? Risk management keynote conference speaker Dr Patrick Dixon addressing 100s of leading fund managers. Market confidence and investment fund misselling? Spitzer inquiry into financial services integrity, sales commissions, agents and distribution. Real investment returns low in many actively managed funds compared to tracker funds. Management charges often wipe out gains and teams move between companies so another reason why performance varies even in same company.
049 What Stroke Volume is and How to Calculate it
 
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http://www.interactive-biology.com - Making Biology Fun In this video I talk about what stroke Volume is - the difference between end diastolic volume and end systolic volume. SV = EDV-ESV. Enjoy!
Views: 182884 Interactive Biology
The Fed Explains Bank Supervision and Regulation
 
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Healthy banks and healthy economies go hand in hand. The latest in the Atlanta Fed’s animated video series explains how the Federal Reserve ensures banks are doing business safely and providing fair and equitable services to their communities.
Views: 25037 AtlantaFed
Internal Rate Of Return IRR Explained
 
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Internal Rate of Return (IRR) explained by Hadar Orkibi. This Video is the third out of three within our "understanding returns on investment" trilogy. Calculating the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the most fascinating return on investment as it is taking in account the Cash on Cash return AND Capital Growth over time. Here you can find the link for chapter 2 Cash on Cash return video: http://youtu.be/QT7UGa2GlDg You can find FREE Property Investment calculator on our website which would help you to crunch the numbers and analyze return on investment: Click this link to register for free: http://www.PropertyGenie.co.nz Hadar is an experienced property investor and trader and is a regular contributor to the New Zealand Property Investors Network: http://www.PropertyGenie.co.nz/author/hadar-orkibi Hadar lives at: http://www.webuyproperty.co.nz/
Views: 2825 NZPropertyInvestors
What is NOI - Real Estate with Grant Cardone
 
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Our offerings under Rule 506(c) are for accredited investors only. GENERALLY, NO SALE MAY BE MADE TO YOU IN THIS OFFERING IF THE AGGREGATE PURCHASE PRICE YOU PAY IS MORE THAN 10% OF THE GREATER OF YOUR ANNUAL INCOME OR NET WORTH. DIFFERENT RULES APPLY TO ACCREDITED INVESTORS AND NON-NATURAL PERSONS. BEFORE MAKING ANY REPRESENTATION THAT YOUR INVESTMENT DOES NOT EXCEED APPLICABLE THRESHOLDS, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO REVIEW RULE 251(D)(2)(I)(C) OF REGULATION A. FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ON INVESTING, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO REFER TO WWW.INVESTOR.GOV. I want to give you my new Real Estate book for FREE! Just follow this link: https://10x.grantcardone.com/real-estate-made-simple-book The NOI is Net Operating Income. You have income, expenses, and then you have NOI. 5 units and above are dependent on NOI. It’s what the price is based off of, what the banks look at, and what the cap rate is made from. To determine the NOI you take Gross income minus expenses = NOI. The higher the NOI the more cash flow it’s going to produce. 3 questions to ask in multi-family: 1.How much will you pay for the property? 2.How much will it operate for? 3.How much can you sell it for when you exit? You can make money with any of these three ways, but ideally all three. Keep in mind that as soon as something comes on the market and it becomes a good deal with a good NOI, you often have over 10 or more buyers coming in immediately. Loopnet is the garbage dump for properties that aren’t selling. As an example, there is a deal for 14 units in Athens, Georgia. It costs 750K so you’d put 190K down and finance 460K. It’s 70% occupied. The NOI is 45K and the debt would be 32K annually. That means you’d basically be putting 190K at risk to make $1300 a month. That deal probably isn’t worth it! The bottom line is you have to know what you are doing with any investment. GrantCardone.com http://www.grantcardone.com
Views: 102443 Grant Cardone
Cardiovascular | Cardiac Output | Frank Starling's Law
 
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SUPPORT | https://www.gofundme.com/ninja-nerd-science Ninja Nerds! Join us in this video where we discuss cardiac output. We go into great detail on how cardiac output is dependent upon stroke volume and heart rate, along with applying that to Frank Starling's law of the heart. ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 48983 Ninja Nerd Science
The Ratemaking Process: Part III
 
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Determining Just & Reasonable Rates
Regulatory lag
 
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Jerome Block Jr. and Rick Lass respond to a question on the time taken to approve utility rate adjustments.
5 Lessons to Learn Before Investing in Real Estate - Real Estate Investing Made Simple
 
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Our offerings under Rule 506(c) are for accredited investors only. GENERALLY, NO SALE MAY BE MADE TO YOU IN THIS OFFERING IF THE AGGREGATE PURCHASE PRICE YOU PAY IS MORE THAN 10% OF THE GREATER OF YOUR ANNUAL INCOME OR NET WORTH. DIFFERENT RULES APPLY TO ACCREDITED INVESTORS AND NON-NATURAL PERSONS. BEFORE MAKING ANY REPRESENTATION THAT YOUR INVESTMENT DOES NOT EXCEED APPLICABLE THRESHOLDS, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO REVIEW RULE 251(D)(2)(I)(C) OF REGULATION A. FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ON INVESTING, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO REFER TO WWW.INVESTOR.GOV. My advice is to study in-depth and emulate one wealthy, successful person. Case in point, Warren Buffett’s information about investing impacted me in a huge way and it was his advice that led me to start investing in real estate. His opinion on Investing: 1. DLM. Don’t Lose Money! 2. Cash Flow. Invest for cash flow. 3. Long Term. Be in the investment for the long term. Since I’ve started investing in real estate I’ve learned a lot about the industry and gained a tremendous amount of knowledge. Here are five of the most important areas: 1. Know Your Market. Investing in Orlando, FL is very different than the Miami area. You need to know the property and location. 2. Never Invest in One Door. Investing in a house, duplex or a small property is not going to generate enough cash flow to cover the deal’s debt, your management time or generate passive income. Always invest in 16 units or more. 3. Know Your Debt Partner. In this case, you need to know your bank. You need to understand the terms offered, what the bank’s strengths are, their area of specialty, etc. 4. Calculate Returns Over Years. Never think short term. Don’t think in months. You need to think long-term and what cash flow you’ll see over the investment term. 5. Exit. Determine how you are going to exit the investment. You should know your audience – who the potential buyer of the property is going to be years from now. Know who your buyer is on the way out. These points are general categories of information to be aware of. For example, “Know Your Market” has much more information and detail to know to be an effective and informed investor. For example: -Rents. You need to know what rents are in the neighborhood. -Jobs. What is the employment rate, industry and companies that fuel the rent situation? -Occupancy. What is the physical occupancy of the property? What is the financial and economic occupancy? -Tenants. Who are the tenants, their history and the type that rent there? -Location. Where is it? What is it near? Is it a transition neighborhood? A few blocks can change things dramatically. -Owner. Know the other owners in the market along with the current owner of the property. -Sellers. Know who the sellers are in the market and who you are competing with. -Market Expenses. How much are utilities? Does a one, two or three-unit work better in the market? What is the unit price? Will parking, lighting push rent up or be seen as a detriment? These are just a few of the points to consider, and just a few of what I go through when sourcing, researching and deciding on real estate deals for Cardone Capital investments. Remember, Cardone Capital differs from other funds in these areas: 1. Partner. We do deals as partners with ownership. 2. Assets. We closely review, tour and investigate potential deals. 3. Monthly Income. We do a monthly distribution of cash flow. Invest. And be smart about it. Be great, GC ►Where to follow and listen to Uncle G: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/grantcardone Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/grantcardonefan SnapChat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/grantcardone. Twitter: https://twitter.com/GrantCardone Website: http://www.grantcardonetv.com Advertising: http://grantcardonetv.com/brandyourself Products: http://www.grantcardone.com LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/grantcardone/ iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/cardone-zone/id825614458
Views: 19041 Grant Cardone
Warren Buffett on Financial Audits, Corporate Boards, and U.S. Business Regulation (2007)
 
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In 1962, Buffett became a millionaire because of his partnerships, which in January 1962 had an excess of $7,178,500, of which over $1,025,000 belonged to Buffett. Buffett merged all partnerships into one partnership. Buffett invested in and eventually took control of a textile manufacturing firm, Berkshire Hathaway. In 1962, Warren Buffett began buying shares in Berkshire from Seabury Stanton, the owner, whom he later fired. Buffett's partnerships began purchasing shares at $7.60 per share. In 1965, when Buffett's partnerships began purchasing Berkshire aggressively, they paid $14.86 per share while the company had working capital of $19 per share. This did not include the value of fixed assets (factory and equipment). Buffett took control of Berkshire Hathaway at the board meeting and named a new president, Ken Chace, to run the company. In 1966, Buffett closed the partnership to new money. He would go on to claim that the textile business had been his worst trade.[29] He then moved the business into the insurance sector, and in 1985 the last of the mills that had been the core business of Berkshire Hathaway was sold. Buffett wrote in his letter: "... unless it appears that circumstances have changed (under some conditions added capital would improve results) or unless new partners can bring some asset to the partnership other than simply capital, I intend to admit no additional partners to BPL." In a second letter, Buffett announced his first investment in a private business — Hochschild, Kohn and Co, a privately owned Baltimore department store. In 1967, Berkshire paid out its first and only dividend of 10 cents. In 1969, following his most successful year, Buffett liquidated the partnership and transferred their assets to his partners. Among the assets paid out were shares of Berkshire Hathaway. In 1970, as chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, Buffett began writing his now-famous annual letters to shareholders. However, he lived solely on his salary of $50,000 per year, and his outside investment income. In 1979, Berkshire began the year trading at $775 per share, and ended at $1,310. Buffett's net worth reached $620 million, placing him on the Forbes 400 for the first time. In 1973, Berkshire began to acquire stock in the Washington Post Company. Buffett became close friends with Katharine Graham, who controlled the company and its flagship newspaper, and became a member of its board of directors. In 1974, the SEC opened a formal investigation into Warren Buffett and Berkshire's acquisition of WESCO, due to possible conflict of interest. No charges were brought. In 1977, Berkshire indirectly purchased the Buffalo Evening News for $32.5 million. Antitrust charges started, instigated by its rival, the Buffalo Courier-Express. Both papers lost money, until the Courier-Express folded in 1982. In 1979, Berkshire began to acquire stock in ABC. Capital Cities announced $3.5 billion purchase of ABC on March 18, 1985 surprised the media industry, as ABC was four times bigger than Capital Cities at the time. Berkshire Hathaway chairman Warren Buffett helped finance the deal in return for a 25% stake in the combined company.[30] The newly merged company, known as Capital Cities/ABC (or CapCities/ABC), was forced to sell off some stations due to FCC ownership rules. Also, the two companies owned several radio stations in the same markets.[31] In 1987, Berkshire Hathaway purchased a 12% stake in Salomon Inc., making it the largest shareholder and Buffett the director. In 1990, a scandal involving John Gutfreund (former CEO of Salomon Brothers) surfaced. A rogue trader, Paul Mozer, was submitting bids in excess of what was allowed by the Treasury rules. When this was discovered and brought to the attention of Gutfreund, he did not immediately suspend the rogue trader. Gutfreund left the company in August 1991.[32] Buffett became Chairman of Salomon until the crisis passed; on September 4, 1991, he testified before Congress.[33] In 1988, Buffett began buying stock in Coca-Cola Company, eventually purchasing up to 7% of the company for $1.02 billion. It would turn out to be one of Berkshire's most lucrative investments, and one which it still holds. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Buffett
Views: 10829 The Film Archives
Rep. Kelly Questions Secretary Duncan About Fair Return on Investment in Education
 
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Rep. Kelly Questions Secretary Duncan About Fair Return on Investment in Education
What is FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION? What does FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION mean?
 
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What is FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION? What does FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION mean? FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION meaning - FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION definition - FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Foreign exchange regulation is a form of financial regulation specifically aimed at the Forex market which is decentralized and operates with no central exchange or clearing house. Due to its decentralised and global nature, foreign exchange market has been more prone to foreign exchange fraud and has been less regulated than other financial markets. However some countries do regulate forex brokers through governmental and independent supervisory bodies, for example the National Futures Association and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission in the US, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission in Australia and the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK. These bodies act as watchdogs for their respective markets and provide financial licenses to organizations that comply with local regulations. The objective of regulation is to ensure fair and ethical business behaviour. In their turn all foreign exchange brokers, investment banks and signal sellers have to operate in compliance with the rules and standards laid down by the Forex regulators. Typically they must be registered and licensed in the country where their operations are based. Licensed brokers may be subject to recurrent audits, reviews and evaluations to check that they meet the industry standards. Foreign exchange brokers may have capital requirements which require them to hold a sufficient amount of funds to be able to execute and complete foreign exchange contracts concluded by their clients and also to return clients’ funds intact in case of bankruptcy. Each Forex regulator operates within its own jurisdiction and regulation and enforcement varies significantly from country to country. In the European Union a license from one member state covers the whole continent under the Mifid regulation and has resulted in regulatory arbitrage where companies select the EU country that imposes the least controls such as CySEC in Cyprus. Not all foreign exchange brokers are regulated and many will register in jurisdictions that impose low-regulatory environments such as tax havens and corporate havens that form part of offshore banking.
Views: 80 The Audiopedia
Incentive Regulation and RPI-X by Stephen Littlechild | FSR Monthly Interview
 
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Stephen Littlechild is a Fellow in Privatization, Regulation and Competition at the University of Cambridge Judge Business School, a former member of the Monopolies and Mergers Commission in the UK and was Director General of Electricity Supply from 1989 to 1998. Here he explains the origin and motivation behind the financial incentive making possible the privatization of regulated industries, known as Retail Price Index or RPI-X pioneered in the UK. Interviewer: Jean-Michel Glachant, Director of Florence School of Regulation, Holder of Loyola de Palacio Chair, European University Institute Florence School of Regulation interviews leading experts of the European energy world on hot energy topics at the beginning of each month. http://fsr.eui.eu
Performance Based Regulatory Solutions
 
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Bronwyn Weir – Maddocks Lawyers An informative Building Australia’s Future 2015 Conference presentation on the risk and regulation associated with developing Performance based solutions and the interactions between local, state and private sector regulators. More information on ‘The NCC – A Performance based Code’ can be found at: http://www.abcb.gov.au Transcript: http://industry.gov.au/transcripts/Pages/Performance-Based-Regulatory-Solutions.aspx
Principles of Price Regulation
 
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This session is part of the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Webinar Programme. Theme 0 - Introduction to Network Regulation. The purpose of this Theme is to provide non-regulators audience with a basic knowledge of regulatory principles. Module 1: Principles of Price Regulation This session explains the nature of economic regulation. It discusses the central question why some parts of the electricity value chain remain regulated and are not subject to competition. Furthermore, four main issues regarding an adequate regulatory regime are addressed: · Areas: Where should be regulated? · Scope: What should be regulated? · Type: How should be regulated? · Institutions: Who should regulate? Special emphasis is put on the types of regulation respectively the different forms of price control and their effects (advantages / disadvantages) -- including incentive regulation. A short overview on the current legislation and application of price control in the EU completes the session.
Views: 469 Leonardo ENERGY
The real truth about the 2008 financial crisis | Brian S. Wesbury | TEDxCountyLineRoad
 
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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. The Great Economic Myth of 2008, challenging the accounting to accounting principal. Brian Wesbury is Chief Economist at First Trust Advisors L.P., a financial services firm based in Wheaton, Illinois. Mr. Wesbury has been a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago since 1999. In 2012, he was named a Fellow of the George W. Bush Presidential Center in Dallas, TX where he works closely with its 4%-Growth Project. His writing appears in various magazines, newspapers and blogs, and he appears regularly on Fox, Bloomberg, CNBCand BNN Canada TV. In 1995 and 1996, he served as Chief Economist for the Joint Economic Committee of the U.S. Congress. The Wall Street Journal ranked Mr. Wesbury the nation’s #1 U.S. economic forecaster in 2001, and USA Today ranked him as one of the nation’s top 10 forecasters in 2004. Mr. Wesbury began his career in 1982 at the Harris Bank in Chicago. Former positions include Vice President and Economist for the Chicago Corporation and Senior Vice President and Chief Economist for Griffin, Kubik, Stephens, & Thompson. Mr. Wesbury received an M.B.A. from Northwestern University’s Kellogg Graduate School of Management, and a B.A. in Economics from the University of Montana. McGraw-Hill published his first book, The New Era of Wealth, in October 1999. His most recent book, It’s Not As Bad As You Think, was published in November 2009 by John Wiley & Sons. In 2011, Mr. Wesbury received the University of Montana’s Distinguished Alumni Award. This award honors outstanding alumni who have “brought honor to the University, the state or the nation.” There have been 267 recipients of this award out of a potential pool of 91,000 graduates. About TEDx, x = independently organized event In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)
Views: 1920986 TEDx Talks
The Costs and Benefits of Regulation
 
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AlexMerced.com
Views: 79 Alex Merced
Employee State Insurance Act 1948 (ESI Act) Explained with Calculation & Example
 
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For ESI Registration of your business visit: http://esipfadvisor.com/ It is a painful task for an organization to understand the rules and regulations of various labour laws and whether they apply to them or not. Labour law advisor will explain you the acts like ESI Act (Employee state insurance act), PF Act (Provident Fund Act), Bonus Act, Gratuity Act, and much more. With our explanation, a business firm can easily determine whether these acts apply to them, and to what extent. The best thing about labour law advisor is, we explain complex acts in a simple manner focused on a business point of view. This video will explain to you 1. What is ESI Act 2. How ESI Act work, Rules and regulation of ESI Act 3. Which organizations, businesses, and industries are covered under ESI Act, 1948 4. What are the contribution rates for ESI 5. Example of ESI Calculation or How to calculate ESI Visit http://www.esipfadvisor.com
Views: 72167 Labour Law Advisor
Standard & Poor's Highlights The Key Credit Factors For Rating Regulated Utilities
 
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Since regulated utilities operate in a noncompetitive landscape, Standard & Poor's uses different criteria to access their business risk profiles. In this CreditMatters TV segment, Director Todd Shipman explains how we analyze and rate these utilities.
Views: 167 S&P Global Ratings
Power Sector Regulation - new online course by Florence School of Regulation
 
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The online course 'Regulation of the Power Sector' will start on February 2015. Find more information on the course soon on our webpage: www.florence-school.eu
Price Ceilings and Floors- Economics 2.6
 
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In this video I explain what happens when the government controls market prices. Price ceilings are a legal maximum price and price floors are a minimum legal price. Make sure that you can draw each of them on a demand and supply graph and identify if there is a shortage or a surplus. Keep in mind that your teacher may use the word "binding" to describe the situation where the price control has an effect on the market. If you need more help, check out my Ultimate Review Packet http://www.acdcecon.com/#!review-packet/czji Next videos showing what happens to consumer surplus, producer surplu, and dead weight loss https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0LXkA9kato All Microeconomics Videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swnoF... All Macroeconomics Videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XnFv3... Watch Econmovies https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Follow me on Twitter https://twitter.com/acdcleadership
Views: 619831 Jacob Clifford
Huntsville Utilities Proposes Rate Increase
 
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The proposed rate hike on your Huntsville utility bill is due to the increased cost of materials. It is also because the Tennessee Valley Authority, who provides energy to Huntsville, plans to charge Huntsville Utilities more money for power. Those costs would trickle down to you the customer. Right now, Huntsville Utilities is proposing the to increase your fixed rate and not base it on how much electricity you use per month. "I prefer the rates stay as they are," said customer Tyler Swegles. Even though customers like Swegles dont want to pay more for electricity an increase is coming. It just depends on the format. Huntsville City Council has three options. Option one has two roughly 2% increases every other year with increases ending in 2021. Option two has less than 1% increases every year for five years. Option three is where the increase is based on usage. "If it's something they're going to mandate one way or another then I'd rather have it increase piece by piece," said Swegles. Your water will not be apart of this rate hike and neither will your gas bill, because both of those utilities are on different contracts and the rates of those are controlled differently than your electricity bill. Huntsville Utilities said they prefer the option that does not change how you're billed based on how much you use here at your meter, because they said the fixed rate increases provide stability to you the customer. "When we put more of the rate increase into the usage portion of the bill, we increase the kilowatt hours, what happens is during periods of extreme weather when cold winter mornings, hot summer days, that magnifies the impact of the bill," said the President of Huntsville Utilities Wes Kelley. Huntsville Utilities said they need this increase to cover increased costs, such as more expensive poles and cable. They said if city council doesn't approve the rate increase the Tennessee Valley Authority will automatically change the rates and change it based on usage where someone using a lot of electricity would get a break on their bill and people using less would pay more. Huntsville utilities is not a fan of that idea and Swegles isn't a fan of TVA making decisions for us either, "I'd rather keep it local and have our own guys take care of us," said Swegles. The options for the rate increase will be presented to city council Thursday and the first opportunity for a vote is on October 11th. If the council picks one the increase with start on January 1st 2019. More: http://www.waaytv.com/content/news/Huntsville-Utilities-proposes-rate-increase--494455801.html ▶ Official Website: http://www.huntsvillenews.org ▶ Follow Huntsville News on Twitter: https://twitter.com/news_huntsville #Huntsville #HuntsvilleNews #HuntsvilleUtilites
Views: 34 Huntsville News
Performance-Based Regulation: The Power of Outcomes (Part 1)
 
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In webinar, the first in a two-part series, panelists from performance-based regulation (PBR) and how it can improve outcomes for utilities, customers, regulators and society at large. Participants learn the fundamentals of PBR and why it is important, and they hear how policymakers have used PBR to further specific goals in the United States and Europe.
Taxes on Producers- Microeconomics 2.11 ACDC Econ
 
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I explain excise taxes any show what happens to consumer surplus, producer surplus, and deadweight loss as a result of a tax. Make sure to watch the section about tax incidence and who pays the majority of a tax.
Views: 570470 Jacob Clifford
Basic Concepts of Income Tax
 
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Basic Concepts of Income Tax: useful for all students of CA, CMA, CS and B.Com.
Views: 473319 CA. Ranjeet Kunwar
How to Prepare Corporation Income Tax Return for Business in Canada
 
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How to prepare corporate tax return for Canadian corporations. In this short video, I'll show you, step-by-step, how to file a T2 Corporation Income Tax Return for your corporation. By watching this video, you will save hundreds, or even thousands of dollars in professional fees that would have been paid to an accountant. Follow us on Twitter - https://twitter.com/Madan_CA Like us on Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/MadanCharteredAccountant?ref=br_tf Add us on Google Plus - https://plus.google.com/u/1/108551869453511666601/posts Download any of our free eBooks available on our website: http://madanca.com/free-tax-secrets/ (Including Tax Tips for Canadians, Personal Tax Planning Guide for Canadians: 2014 Edition and 20 Tax Secrets for Canadians) Table of contents 00:52 - Income statement 01:18 - Balance Sheet 01:56 - Schedules for preparation of tax return 02:55 - Schedule 100 (Balance Sheet Information) 03:14 - Schedule 125 (Income Statement Information) 03:40 - Schedule 50 (Shareholder Information) 03:56 - Schedule 8 (Capital Cost Allowance [CCA]) 05:02 - Schedule 1 (Net Income) 05:45 - Schedule 200 (T2 Corporation Income Tax Return) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jU4Td7652hs Disclaimer: The information provided in this video is intended to provide general information. The information does not take into account your personal situation and is not intended to be used without consultation from accounting and financial professionals. Allan Madan and Madan Chartered Accountant will not be held liable for any problems that arise from the usage of the information provided in this video.
Views: 91343 Allan Madan
Regulation
 
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Views: 877 G Conomics

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